Saturday, July 30, 2011

Real World Science

Not all of the students in my chemistry class will be going on to earn a technical degree in college. Although understanding the intricacies of balancing equations, predicting the products of reactions, and carefully following the scientific method is important for these students, they also need to learn to be educated consumers of scientific information. As new technology evolves, I want my students to have the combination of background knowledge and research skills that will allow them to research and understand scientific breakthroughs throughout their adult lives.

Students are constantly searching for ways they will use what they learn in the “real world.” It is what we are preparing them for, after all! Finding real world applications for students as often as possible. It is hard for many students to find the drive and motivation to study and learn about a subject when there is no obvious connection to their immediate lives.

Joann is discussing nanotechnology resources this week on the Gateway. The resources she selected will help students understand how the science of nanotechnology works in products they use every day. These are some great ideas for bringing real world applications of chemistry to your students. Nanotechnology is one example of a cutting-edge use of science in industry, and there are plenty more examples you can relate to all different disciplines of science. What are some ways to incorporate new technology and current scientific events into the science classroom?

A simple way to relate science topics to students’ lives is to begin each unit with a short-term student directed project related to the particular topic of study. Doing this will help students invest a little time on the topic, creating more interest when you start teaching about it. You could also choose to conclude a unit with the same type of project instead. This will allow students to use their knowledge and find their own real world connections.

Much like social studies teachers emphasize the importance of discussing current events, science teachers can set aside time to talk about current events in science. Chemistry is advancing all different kinds of cutting-edge technology that is important in students’ lives. Students might be surprised by the cool things happening in science! Having a time to discuss current scientific events could be a nice addition for many science classrooms.

It is fun to watch movies and television shows that depict technology of the future, and it can be even more fun to find out what types of futuristic technologies are already here. Prime time television is full of “science,” but often it can be hard to decipher between fact and fiction. One neat project idea for a chemistry or biology class would allow students to find examples of science on TV. Some good places to look are in shows about crime, detectives, and the legal system. CSI and Law & Order are a couple that come to mind. Once students find ideas, create a class list of topics they can research. Each student or group of students would be required to pick a topic and research whether or not their chosen technology is used in the real world. If the technology is not yet available, they can present the type of research and testing that is taking place in order to make that technology a reality.

Here are some examples of project ideas that students can choose from:

Create a short documentary about the history of the technology in question.

Stage a debate about the ethics surrounding the technology.

Create a visual comparison of the technology to previous technology.

Design a visual/hands-on/multisensory explanation of the technology.

Direct a commercial touting the benefits of the technology.

Design and carry out an experiment to compare or demonstrate a technology.

Create lesson plans to teach younger students about the topic.

When students present their findings (creatively, of course), they should find ways to connect their research to what they have been learning in class. Aha! This is how they will use science in the real world!

~Peggy's Corner - July 27, 2011~

It’s a Small World After All

In the 1980s, a new branch of science emerged that seemed to be straight out of the pages of a science fiction novel. While the new science didn’t initially garner much attention from the general press or population, scientists and ethicists were all abuzz about nanotechnology. Despite some news items that occasionally crop up in the mainstream media, nanotechnology has quietly continued to evolve and impact our everyday lives. Unbeknownst to most people, the technology is used in many everyday objects, such as sunscreens, cosmetics, fabrics, eyeglass lenses, LCD screens, scratch-resistant car finishes, and much more.

Nanotechnology is the manipulation of matter and the engineering of tiny machines on an atomic and molecular scale. The scale is extraordinarily small: one nanometer (or nanoscale) is one billionth of a meter, which is about 50,000 times small than the width of a human hair. The head of a common pin is about one millimeter in diameter, or the equivalent of one million nanometers, while a single human red blood cell is approximately 2,500 nanometers in size. Reducing objects to the nanoscale is an extremely complex science that offers a wide range of applications and potentially great benefits in the way of medicine, consumer products, and fuels. Many newer sunscreens, for example, contain nanoparticles of zinc or titanium oxide that allows them to spread more easily and reduce whitish residue on the skin. Fabrics that inhibit the penetration of UV rays are coated with thin layers of zinc oxide nanoparticles, while other fabrics contain nanoparticles that help resist stains or repel water. Clothing manufacturer Eddie Bauer, for instance, has used embedded nanoparticles to create stain- and wrinkle-resistant khaki pants. Nanoparticles allow for better absorption of diet and vitamin supplements by the body, and are used to manufacture lighter and stronger tennis rackets and golf clubs. Applications in development currently include edible, antimicrobial films that kill bacteria in packaged foods, and the injection of specially coated nanoparticles into a patient’s bloodstream to target cancerous cells. It’s a brave new world of extremely exciting, cool science.

Nanotechnology is not without its detractors, however. Some scientists and ethicists cite concerns regarding irresponsible molecular manufacturing, fearing possible toxicity, its unknown impact on the environment, and how it may be used by military groups worldwide. The applications and potential drawbacks of nanotechnology make it a ripe subject for many classrooms. While science classes are a natural place for nanotechnology lessons and activities, other subject areas can benefit as well. The nanometer scale can be used in math classes, and the societal implications of molecular manufacturing provides a great topic of discussion for English and social studies classrooms. Nanotechnology issues can also be incorporated into civics, ethics, and character education lessons.

This week, I’ve highlighted three nanotechnology lessons for a range of ages. I’ll be featuring many more lessons, activities, and resources on nanotechnology on our Facebook and Twitter pages throughout the week, so please be sure to check those pages regularly.

Sugar Crystal Challenge

Subjects: Physical science, Math

Grade: 3-8

This lesson explores how nanostructures can influence surface area, and how the sugar can be modified to different levels of coarseness without impacting molecular structure. Students work in teams and explore different states of sugar as it relates to surface area and molecular structure. This lesson was created by, a site for students, their parents, their teachers and their school counselors. TryNano was created jointly by IEEE, IBM, and the New York Hall of Science for the benefit of the public.

Introduction to Nanotechnology Lesson Plan

Grade: 6-8

This lesson plan was created to help middle school science teachers provide an introduction to nanotechnology in a classroom setting. Students learn about nanotechnology, its applications in the real world, and what could possibly happen in the future. This lesson was produced by Hawk's Perch Technical Writing, LLC, which produces books and education materials on engineering topics.

Nanofibers On Your Clothes

Subjects: Physical science

Grade: 9-12

The purpose of this activity is to compare the weight, and “feel” of nanofiber treated fabrics to both untreated and Scotchguard treated fabrics, as well as their susceptibility to stains from various sources. This activity is a product of the Center for Affordable Nanoengineering of Polymeric Biomedical Devices at Ohio State University, and develops polymer-based nanomaterials and nanoengineering technology. The Center also offers educational materials on nanotechnology for teachers and the public.

~Joann's Picks - July 27, 2011~

Saturday, July 23, 2011

Peace through Knowledge: The study of Islam and other World Religions

Putting the words school and religion together in a sentence is enough to make many people cringe. Separation of church and state is an important facet of the U.S. government, and teachers tend to avoid religious topics so they don’t run the risk of crossing that fine line. Joann’s featured resources this week on the Gateway give teachers tools to teach students about world religions in a fair and balanced manner.

Religious conflicts have fueled wars throughout the ages. Gaining a deep understanding of the differences and similarities between these conflicting religions is an important part of growing up and becoming a contributing member of society. Since people tend to fear the unknown, they can develop an unhealthy fear and prejudice towards particular religions and cultures. Since it is somewhat of a taboo topic, students might not feel comfortable asking questions about different religions at school, and there aren’t many other places they can go to find the answers to these questions. With the current unrest in the Middle East, an important religion for students to understand is Islam. Most children in United States are familiar with Judeo-Christian history and beliefs, but the ideas and practices of Muslims (those practicing Islam) may seem foreign and scary to them.

Islam is the second most popular religion in the world. Most of the followers live in the Middle East, Asia, and the horn of Africa. Because of this geographical separation from the United States and because of the extensive coverage of Islamic extremists in the news, the religion is not well understood by many Americans. According to one Gallup poll, 43% of Americans felt at least a “little” prejudice against Muslims. As teachers, we might be able to help alleviate this fear of the unknown to prevent this prejudice.

By teaching about religions such as Islam in school, we can arm our students with knowledge so they can make informed choices. We don’t want stereotypes to fuel their decisions; we want our students to base decisions on unbiased facts. Studying the history of Islam is just an example. There are many different religions in the world that students can compare and contrast to gain a better understanding of historical and current events.

New York’s Morningside Center for Teaching Social Responsibility has some valuable resources for teaching world religions in the classroom. There is a “Teachable Moment” section on their site that has some good ideas for activities and critical thinking about Islam and other major religions. One example is Islam and the West: An Overview and Suggestions for Study, which has lots of good ideas for incorporating the study of religion (specifically Islam) into your curriculum. You will find more good resources on Morningside’s site. is also a good source of lesson plans and tips for including the study of world religions in your classroom. How have World Religions Shaped Who I Am Today?” is an introductory lesson to a unit on world religions. In this lesson, students take an inventory of their beliefs. The whole unit is well-planned and would be a good place to start when you incorporated a unit on world religions into your teaching.

There are a huge amount of resources available on the Gateway to help you introduce and study religion with your students. If you go to the main page of the Gateway and search for Islam, you will find plenty to use. The following two examples are other types of resources available. Check them out to see a preview of what is available.

USA Today Special Report Comparing Religions:

Islam or Christianity:

~Peggy's Corner - July 21, 2011~

A Priest, a Rabbi, and a Buddhist Walk Into a…

For the past several years, the intermediate public school in my town has hosted a World Religions Day for the 6th graders. For an entire day, sixth grade classes move with their teachers from classroom to classroom every 40 minutes or so to learn about different religions and cultures. Each presentation is led by either a local religious leader or a practicing member (usually a parent) of a particular faith. There is absolutely no proselytizing, “recruitment” efforts, or one-upmanship regarding the speakers’ personal faiths in relation to other faiths. Rather, the sessions are warm, informational, and meant to educate the students on the various religions in our region. The presentations highlight the commonalities and differences among various religions, as well as the history and cultural influences behind each respective religion’s specific beliefs. Students are strongly encouraged to ask questions, and after a few brief moments of hesitation, a barrage of questions invariably flows from the kids. Parents and town residents are welcome to attend the sessions, and a healthy number do. This past year, sessions were hosted by a Catholic priest, a rabbi, a Buddhist monk, a Presbyterian minister, a Congregational pastor, an imam, and a parent who practices Hinduism. Follow-up surveys to the students indicate that the overwhelming majority find the experience interesting and valuable (much to their surprise). They appreciate the exposure to the religions of some of their peers, and the opportunity to ask questions that they normally would be too embarrassed or too shy to ask in another environment. Against some fairly substantial odds, the event has been a success each year.

The topic of religion in public schools has a long and highly controversial history in the United States, and remains the cause of much conflict. Religion is certainly a “hot button” subject in many regions, and many schools understandably decide to distance themselves from the topic as much as possible. There are fears of possible indoctrination, the belief that any mention of religion in public school is unconstitutional, and the concern that introducing discussion about religion in the classroom could provoke clashes between students of different faiths. Some schools, however, have decided to tackle the subject head-on by incorporating lessons about world religions into the curriculum.

Some decades ago, schools adopted materials on multiculturalism and diversity education in order to foster better student understanding of racial and cultural differences, and to promote tolerance. Lessons on world religions may be viewed in a similar vein, with many of the same goals. By law, public schools in the U.S. may not provide religious instruction, but they may teach about religion. There’s a vital difference, and it’s critical to distinguish between teaching religion, and teaching about religion. Teachers and outside guests must remain neutral when teaching about religion in public schools, and embrace the idea that at its heart, education is about broadening students’ horizons, and teaching them to develop the necessary critical thinking and reasoning skills that will prepare them for a thoughtful and well-informed life ahead.

My picks this week focus on lessons that teach students about various world religions and how they influence the local and global cultures. I will also be featuring many more lessons and educational resources on world religions on our Facebook and Twitter pages, so be sure to give those a look.

The Golden Rule of Reciprocity

Subjects: World Religions, Social Studies, English Language Arts

Grade: 4-6

The Silk Roads encompassed a diversity of cultures embracing numerous religions and worldviews from Venice, Italy to Heian, Japan. Between these two ends, belief systems that are represented are Buddhism, Confucianism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, Shinto, and Daoism. In this lesson, students will review, compare and contrast The Golden Rule of Reciprocity from different religious teachings, and will analyze primary texts of sacred and philosophical writings. This lesson was produced by the Asia Society, a global non-profit organization that seeks to strengthen relationships and promote education in the fields of arts and culture, policy and business in the U.S. and Asia.

Five Major World Religions

Subjects: World Religions, Research Skills

Grade: 7

This activity allows students to research and identify various aspects of five major world religions including Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Judaism. Students will use the World Wide Web to conduct research, recording their findings in tables. This lesson is a product of C·R·E·A·T·E for Mississippi at Mississippi State University. C·R·E·A·T·E for Mississippi provides on-site, on-going technology professional development, "just-in-time" support for technology use, and technology-infused curriculum modules.

An Approach to Teaching Religious Tolerance

Subjects: World Religions, Social Studies, English, Character Education

Grade: 9-12

The United States of America is a nation founded upon freedom. Our Founding Fathers attempted to frame a flexible document to live through the ages which would protect and promote freedom. It is the responsibility of the people in a democratic society to educate their children to understand our freedom, but also the responsibility that goes with it. The primary focus of this lesson will be that of religious freedom. It is a sensitive subject area, but a critical one to developing an understanding of our rights as United States citizens. Students should learn to be open-minded, independent thinkers in this area so that freedom may be guaranteed throughout the ages. This lesson is a product of the Academy Curricular Exchange at the Organization for Community Networks (OFCN). The Curriculum Exchange offers a variety of lesson plans by teachers attending the Columbia Education Center's Summer Workshops, as well teachers nationwide.

~Joann's Picks - July 21, 2011~

Saturday, July 16, 2011

Memory Mates

Although it was a few years back, I distinctly remember the hours I spent studying to memorize the steps of how a bill becomes a law. Passing the Constitution test was a requirement for passing the eighth grade, so it was a pretty big deal to us at the time.  I made a Velcro study board so I could practice putting all the steps in the right order.  It was a low-tech study solution, but the hands-on nature of creating and using the board was very helpful to me.  There are all kinds of online tools that your students can use to study and memorize things today.  Between these tools and good old-fashioned studying, our students can master memorization this year!  These examples are about how a bill becomes law, but the tools and techniques are universal.

Tickle their funny bones: Students can create comic strips or children’s books about the how a bill becomes a law.  Writing and illustrating the process can help students “own” the information.  This site lists some good online comic generators, but you can also assign this with pen and paper.

Show off the learning: Students can make posters of the process, tying the review process to their creativity.  There is something about working on a huge poster board and markers that has always appealed to me!  If you want to go high tech with this one, let your students create and present interactive online posters.  Try making a glog on Glogter or a Prezi. 

Hollywood Style Learning: Let your students get really creative and have them create movies or slideshows to share with the class.  Tools like Powerpoint, Windows Movie Maker, and iMovie are all great, but there are also free online tools for educators like Animoto.  I listed Prezi as an interactive online poster, but it is also a great replacement for Powerpoint.

Put it in a Binder: Somebody might already have collected resources for the topic you are studying in a LiveBinder.  If not, it would be a great thing for your students to create themselves.  Check out this tool that allows you to compile all kinds of information to save and study later.

In a Flash: Studying flashcards is a very effective memorization tool.  There are online flashcard generators and smartphone apps that can bring flashcards to your digital devices and prevent writers cramp at the same time! Quizlet is a neat flashcard generator that you can access from a computer or smartphone.
Memorizing facts and procedures can be a daunting task, but hopefully some of these 21st century tools can male it more manageable and fun.

~Peggy's Corner - July 14, 2011~

Bill and the Fed’s Excellent Adventure

Younger students don’t spend much time thinking about laws, or how they are created. They understand laws as “rules” that are meant be followed, and that the appearance of police officers and general unpleasantness may occur if the rules (laws) aren’t obeyed. It’s not until upper elementary and middle school that students really start to grasp the notion that laws don’t just arbitrarily happen, but are in fact the result of a lengthy process that often takes unexpected twists and turns.

In many American public schools, students begin learning about the branches of government and the legislative process in 8th grade. There are, however, many good lessons, activities, and online sites that present information on the workings of government and how bills become laws for younger students. If you’re of a certain age, your introduction to the legislative process was likely the Schoolhouse Rock video I’m Just a Bill, which is still as good as you remember and widely available on YouTube, SchoolTube, and similar sites. A basic understanding of how bills become laws is critical for civic literacy, and students of all ages should be exposed to age-appropriate resources that explain the journey that bills take on their way to becoming laws.  At younger ages, students can learn how bills are proposed and sponsored, while older students’ lessons can incorporate how bills are debated, tweaked, negotiated, and voted upon, as well as how lobbyists can affect the legislative process.

The vast majority of bills never become laws. Many fizzle somewhere along the route for a lack of Congressional support, or are perhaps ultimately vetoed by the President. Learning the legislative process not only exposes students to the workings of Congress and how laws are created, but also allows them to more fully understand how laws help to regulate our society and improve the way we live. My picks this week all focus on the journey that bills must take in order to become U.S. laws. I’ll also be featuring many different types of resources and materials for all ages on the legislative process on our Facebook and Twitter pages, so be sure to check those pages.

From a Bill to a Law
Subjects: Civics, U.S. government
Grade: 3-6
This activity is designed to familiarize students with the legislative process and increase student awareness of their district Representative and the responsibilities of Members of the U.S. House of Representatives. This resource was produced by the U.S. House of Representatives, which offers a variety of lesson plans and resources for teachers and students.

How a Bill Becomes a Law: Charting the Path 
Grade: 6-8
In this lesson, students learn the steps of a bill becoming a law and use this information to write a story about "the life of a bill." Students then evaluate the effectiveness of our system of creating laws. This lesson was produced by The Dirksen Congressional Center, a non-partisan organization that seeks to promote a better understanding of Congress and its leaders through educational programs and research.

Congressional Committees and the Legislative Process
Subjects: Civics. U.S. Government
Grade: 9-12
This lesson plan introduces students to the pivotal role that Congressional committees play in the legislative process, focusing on how their own Congressional representatives influence legislation through their committee appointments. Students begin by reviewing the stages of the legislative process, then learn how committees and subcommittees help determine the outcome of this process by deciding which bills the full Congress will consider and by shaping the legislation upon which votes are finally cast. With this background, students research the committee and subcommittee assignments of their Congressional representatives, then divide into small groups to prepare class reports on the jurisdictions of these different committees and their representatives' special responsibilities on each one. Finally, students consider why representation on these specific committees might be important to the people of their state or community, and examine how the committee system reflects some of the basic principles of American federalism. This lesson is a product of EDSITEment, an educational outreach program of the National Endowment for the Humanities. EDSITEment offers lesson plans and activities for social studies, literature and language arts, foreign languages, art, culture, and history classrooms.

~Joann's Picks - July 14, 2011~

Teens and the Sun: Public Service Announcements

I feel like such a hypocrite writing this minutes after smoothing aloe vera gel on my daughter’s sunburn from a long day at the pool.  Our topic this week on the Gateway is sun safety, and I have not been a good example!  Today’s blunders remind me how valuable it can be to help our students learn from other people’s mistakes, so they don’t have to make every mistake on their own.  I could start a sun safety lesson tomorrow by bringing in my daughter as evidence of the sun’s powerful rays…or by using another primary resource like a video I find online.  There are videos out there showing the consequences of too much sun exposure, and you can find ones that are appropriate for many different age groups.

A YouTube video, Dear 16 Year Old Me had been circulating around Facebook for a while before I finally watched it.  Once I watched this tearjerker about Melanoma, I saw some real potential for using it in a junior high or high school classroom.  The power of the video is that it shows actual young people dealing with this scary disease.  These are people who were (not too long ago) 16 and carefree, which may help students connect with them.  We don’t necessarily want to scare our students into taking care of their skin, but we want to scare them enough to think about the things they are doing to their bodies.  On a side note, please preview this video, as it contains some adult language in the discussion of melanoma.

It would take a major paradigm shift to change the idea that bronze is beautiful, and videos like this are hoping to make at least a small difference in people’s opinions and decisions regarding sun safety. Watching a video on the topic could be a good introduction and discussion starter about skin cancer, sunscreen, and tanning.  Allowing students to research and create their own YouTube public service announcements in response or in addition to this movie will really help drive the information home.  It would allow students to challenge their creativity while they work to create a product that will entertain and educate their classmates.

If you search The Gateway to 21st Century Skills for “sun safety,” you will find more than a dozen resources to help you dig deeper into the topic with your students before they create their videos.  I recommend checking these out along with the three resources Joann discusses in her post this week.  Two of her suggested resources include a section on creating public service announcements about sun safety.

There are many other videos besides the popular Dear 16 Year Old Me available online.  You can also find professionally created public service announcements on YouTube to use as examples for your students.  My personal favorites were the different versions created for Australia’s Slip, Slop, Slap campaign.  The tune from the newest version and the eighties version might get stuck in your head for a while, so watch out!  Somehow I missed the slip, slop, slap today, shame on me!  Maybe the students will come up with a better campaign to help me out.

We would love to see some student-created video presentations.  If your students create videos, please share on our Facebook and Twitter pages.  

~Peggy's Corner - July 7, 2011~

A Slow Burn

In the 1920s, French fashion designer Coco Chanel inadvertently started a trend when she was photographed with a suntan. Previously dismissed as the badge of farmers and laborers, suntans suddenly became the emblem of luxury and leisure, and everyone wanted one. Nearly a century later, tanning is still popular. Despite all the research linking sun overexposure to skin cancer, the tanning industry continues to grow, and grosses about $5 billion annually. What’s wrong with this picture?

Overexposure to ultraviolet radiation, or UV rays, is associated with the development of cataracts, premature aging of the skin, suppression of the immune system, and the development of skin cancer. Experts state that the best protection against developing any of these conditions is to practice basic sun safety – wear sunscreen, avoid intense sunlight between the peak hours of 10am and 4pm, wear appropriate clothing such as sunglasses, hats, and long-sleeved clothing, and avoid sunburns. Australia instituted a public health campaign several decades ago entitled “Slip, Slop, Slap” to encourage residents to slip on a shirt, slop on sunblock, and slap on a hat. The campaign has been very successful, and has been adopted by New Zealand and some Canadian provinces.

Sunlight, in moderation, is good for human health. It’s still the best way to absorb vitamin D; the nutrient is necessary for many health benefits, and is believed to inhibit some forms of cancer. Yet the vast majority of people engage in suntanning not for any type of health benefit, but for purely cosmetic reasons – they like the way it looks. Teens are particularly vulnerable to the allure of tans, as many of the “celebrities” that they take an interest in, such as the Kardashian sisters and the cast of reality show “Jersey Shore”, strut around bronzed and oiled. As educators, how do we get the message across that tanning really is dangerous to your health?

The resources that I’ve selected this week all highlight the dangers of sun overexposure using hands-on experiments or activities.  Younger students can use solar beads to detect UV rays and watch them turn color as they are exposed to sunlight, while older students research skin cancer risk factors, sunscreen effectiveness, and create public service announcements for their peers, alerting them to the risks of UV light exposure in tanning. Skin cancers are largely preventable, and the persistent trend in tanning via sun exposure and tanning beds is distressing. Educating students of all ages about the risks of tanning is time well spent, and may one day save their lives.

Exploring Solar Beads
Subjects: Science
Grade: K-6
This activity uses solar beads to detect ultraviolet light and radiation. This is a good activity to help teach kids about the harmful effect of UV light and possible melanoma. This activity was created by the U.S. Energy Information Administration, which offers energy-related stories, lesson plans, research articles, and other activities for teachers.

Subjects: Health, Biology, Social Studies
Grade: 6-8
Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer in the U.S. and Canada. In this lesson, students will research and identify skin cancer risk factors, identify causes of melanoma and preventative measures to avoid it, and explain the dangers of overexposure to ultraviolet sun rays. Students will then create public service announcements directed at youth audiences. This resource was produced by CNN, which offers student news and education resources in addition to global news.

Protect the Skin You’re In
Subjects: Health, Biology, Social Studies
Grade: 9-12
This lesson is designed for a high school biology, anatomy, or health class to explore the importance of sun safety in relationship to skin cancer prevention. Students will begin with an inquiry based lab regarding sunscreen effectiveness. After analyzing the relationship between lab results and common student practices regarding sun screen use, students will administer and analyze a simple survey to their peers. This lesson will culminate with students developing and implementing a public service campaign designed to increase student use of sunscreen and sun safety awareness. In order for these activities to be most effective, the students should have prior knowledge of skin cancer. This lesson is a product of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which offers up-to-the-minute health information and lots of resources for teachers and students.

~Joann's Picks - July 7, 2011~